Sequential Gearbox in V8 Toyota 86 & Data Analysis | Today At HPA 218 [UPDATE]


– Hey guys it’s Andre from High
Performance Academy, welcome along to this week’s webinar. Now we’re going to be talking today about
what, on face value might seem like a pretty dry topic, we’re going to be talking
about pull up resistors, you’ll find out what they are and you’ll
find out why they’re important. Now it might be a dry topic but if you
don’t understand how a pull up resistor works or why you may need one, you’re
going to have the potential for a lot of trouble when you’re setting up an
aftermarket ECU. Before we get into that though, just wanted
to talk about a few things that have been going on around here over the last week. Now we’re going to actually start by just
covering off an Instagram I put up late last week, if I can get my words out
properly. This is one that we took when we were
over at Goodwood Festival of Speed or photos that we took when we were
at Goodwood Festival of Speed. So we’ll head across to my laptop screen
for a moment. And if you aren’t already following our
Instagram account, please make sure you do so, we do post really regularly and,
at least we think we post up some pretty interesting content. There’s always some pretty good discussion
in there as well. So this is a Mercedes 190E DTM race car. So this is from back in the early ’90s
and I don’t know, I think this is probably maybe a slightly more pure era for
race cars in general. We saw the DTM cars also. The mid ’90s, probably one of my
favourite eras for British touring cars, super tourers et cetera. Just a lot of really cool race cars were
built over that period. But the important thing, or why I kind
of like this period is that they were a little bit rawer than what we see now. Not so many driver aids, a bit more
driver skill perhaps required. Anyway that’s not really the purpose
of the discussion. So the car here, what I found interesting
was the way they had a 2.5 litre base engine and I think at the end of their
development, they ended up around about 375 horsepower depending who you
talk to or where you look, those numbers seem to vary from about
350 to 375. I like to be a little bit generous here
so we went with the larger number. Now a couple of things that it’s obviously
difficult without the aid of a turbo to make those sorts of numbers from a four
cylinder engine with just 2.5 litres. And there’s a couple of things that they
did to try and help. First of all, you can see here in this
shot, that I’ve just drawn all over poorly, they used, instead of a conventional set
of individual throttle bodies or a single plenum and a single throttle, they used
a slide throttle arrangement. Now nothing particularly unusual about
that. There’s a variety of different techniques
when it comes to getting air into the engine or throttling the air flow into the
engine. Now a conventional throttle body that
we see in most of our factory road cars and most people use in race applications,
it’s fine, it works well, but what it does do is even at wide open throttle there is
still something stuck in the air flow there that can disrupt and reduce the
airflow so the slide throttle body, when it is completely open, offers
absolutely no restriction to airflow. We had a few questions about whether
the slide throttle does impact on the airflow causing turbulence et cetera
at part throttle. And this was something I don’t have any data
on. I could imagine that that may be an
issue but these engines, really they’re focusing more on the outright
top end performance at wide open throttle probably than the drivability. Now another thing we can see on this
shot, it is a little bit tricky, but if we follow the fuel lines we can
actually see there are two sets of injectors fitted here. So we’ve got a primary set which are the
ones on the left hand side there, right up by the intake port at the head
flange, pretty conventional location for our port fuel injectors. And then we’ve got a secondary set that
go into the carbon inlet runners that are pre the slide throttle bodies. And this isn’t done because they
couldn’t support the fuel requirements with a single set of injectors. Obviously our fuel injector selection has
grown dramatically over the last few decades but we can still get injectors
that were big enough back in this era for 350 plus horsepower. However what they were doing was
actually using staged injection here. And the idea is to stage in those
secondaries pre throttle body at wide open throttle and higher RPM. And the aim was to try and get a more
homogenous fuel/air mixture. Basically trying to get every last scrap
of power out of the available air that was entering the cylinders. And probably my favourite part that came
out of this interview or this tech tour, was the fact that the engineers actually
fitted or retrofitted variable cam control to these engines. So in particular here you can see the little
cylinder on the front of the intake cam there. So this wasn’t a continuously variable
cam control system like we see now. This was a switch cam control system. Still popular on a range of different engines,
in particular one that jumps to mind is Nissan used it on the SR20 as well as
the RB series of engines. So it allows the cam to be advanced at
low RPM to help low RPM performance and then retard it again at a certain
point in the rev range in order to optimise high RPM performance. And that was important as well because
these engines did rev through to 10500 RPM. So trying to get as wide a torque curve as
possible was pretty important. So there’s a little bit of insight into that
car, I probably should actually show you a picture of what the car looked like. Interesting point that came out of
talking to the Mercedes engineers there, they actually had just come recently from
a Mercedes historic event in which Lewis Hamilton was attending. And Lewis actually got to cut some
laps in this 190E. Obviously a little slower and a little
less powerful than what Lewis Hamilton’s normally used to. Apparently after about three or four laps
they were struggling to get him out of the car and he was grinning from ear
to ear so just to show you that you don’t need all the power in the world,
you don’t need to be driving an F1 car, to have a lot of fun out on a racetrack. Right now we have been talking a little
bit recently about our black Toyota 86, the one we’ve got our 450 horsepower
V8 in it. And we’ve been battling with this car
with a few issues around cooling in particular. So we have made some changes and for
those who have been watching us religiously for a fair while, you’ll probably
remember a few months I talked about the fact that we made some changes to
the cooling system in terms of originally it was a large oil cooler fitted
directly in front of the radiator. We also had an over the radiator cold
air intake designed for a Holden Commodore that was fitted. This came down over the top of the
radiator, again blocking some of the flow. So we made some changes there,
moved the oil cooler so it wasn’t in front of the radiator, put a conventional
air filter on it. So freed everything up there and we
were hoping that this was going to keep our engine cool. The one race we did prior to making
these changes, we were really battling and having to short shift the engine
because after about five laps it was getting up to about 110 degrees C
and obviously at that sort of temperature, it’s not really going to help with the life
expectancy of the engine. Now the reason that we’ve had a few
delays here is that in the meantime we have also been making a lot of
other changes to the car. In particular we made some changes with
the gearbox, fitting a sequential six speed gearbox into it. We’ve also had problems with the
temperature control and the rear differential so we fitted a larger Cusco billet
aluminium rear housing for that. And we’ve talked about this in one of our
pre shows prior, one of the things that was brought up was that that on its own
wasn’t going to fix the cooling problem, which we pretty much knew already. However it does make it easy for us to
fit an external oil cooler, given that we are planning to use this
car for some endurance circuit racing. So we got the car to the track on the
weekend and I just wanted to take you through some of the data. So we’ll head across to my laptop screen
for a moment. So this is from one of the faster laps
that got done while we were out there. We were only putting in three to five laps
at a time. So definitely not really punishing the
car like it would be in endurance racing. But what we’re looking at here, on the
MoTeC data, obviously at the top in red we’ve got our engine RPM, we’ve got our
throttle position and our throttle pedal position, given that this is drive by wire,
but we’ll come back and talk about that in a second. We’ve got our intake air temperature
which as we can see through this particular lap is staying relatively under
control around about 17 degrees C. We’ve got our oil pressure, obviously
we always want to be keeping an eye on that to make sure that’s under
control. And then at the bottom here we’ve got
our engine oil temperature and our engine coolant temperature. So bearing in mind that this is only one
lap, it’s hard to draw too many conclusions. So if we use the minimum and maximum
function on the MoTeC i2 software, we can see that in blue our engine
coolant temperature, minimum was 81 degrees and a maximum of 86
degrees on that lap. Now that’s a much bigger improvement
compared to where we were north of 100 degrees C. Bearing in mind again only a few laps
in there. What we can see as well though, our oil
temperature, minimum of 99 and a maximum of 104. Now those temperatures on their own aren’t
really anything to be concerned about. Definitely I’ve got no issue running our
oil temperature up at 104 and generally I like to be somewhere around about 100
to 110 degrees C and there actually can be some problems if you run your oil
temperature too low. But when we’re only looking at a snapshot
of data like this, it’s hard to get a really good idea of what is going on and what
may go on if we continue to go and put in another 10 laps after this. So if we just zoom back out, so we’re
having a look at a wider section of the data here. In fact we’ve got all of our data here from
when the car went out on the track, to the point where I got out of the throttle
because I was coming back in for a cool down lap. So if we look at the left hand side at the
start of the data here, just after we get out on track, we can see our oil temperature
sitting at 69 degrees, our coolant temperature 82. What we can see with our coolant
temperature is essentially it cycles up and down a little bit. I’ve got a maximum of 89 and a
minimum of 81 but the important thing is we’ve got this gently oscillation
depending on whether the car is under sustained wide open throttle operation
or whether it’s going through a corner at lower RPM or braking. So that’s good, this is what we want
to see. We’ve got this gently oscillation and we’re
never really seeing a continual trend, with our temperature climbing. Unfortunately the same can’t be said
for our oil temperature here. And when we initially get out on the
track we see the oil temperature drop a little down to 65 degrees C as we start
getting air flow ove the cooler. However from this point on it’s a constant
rise and basically at the point where we get out of the throttle on our cool down
lap we’re up to 105 degrees. So it doesn’t take a rocket scientist to
kind of extrapolate that trend that, not with that one, that trend that we’ve
got going on there. We’ve got this constant movement of
our oil temperature up and to the right. So what this indicates to us is probably
we’re going to have issues for endurance racing and we are going to be fitting a
larger oil cooler. It’s not all bad though, getting control of
our engine coolant temperature is a massive win so we’re pretty happy with
that. Now at the same time if we head across
to have a look at some of our other data here, if we go to our transmission
general. We’ve got our temperature for our gearbox,
so that’s in the centre here in purple. And we’ve got our temperature for our
differential in green at the bottom. Now this is definitely not good news. We can see we’ve got that really sharp
increase at the start of the session. Transmission temperature 79, diff
temperature 79, basically. And by the end of that session here we
have peaked 105 in the gearbox, 123 in the diff. Now the gearbox manufacturer has
recommended degreadable oil that we’re running in this transmission and also
suggested we don’t go over 110. Obviously for reliability purposes,
we’re going to take their advice. So we are in the process of fitting oil
coolers to both the diff and the gearbox. So I’ll just take you through and show you
what that all looks like, bear with me for a second here. Alright so on my laptop screen at the moment
this is the front right hand corner of the car, it’s a little bit hard to really make out
what we’ve got going on here. This is actually the brake cooling duct
that normally connects up to the front bar. So what we’ve got is a Mocal diff oil pump
here that’s been fitted up in the chassis. And it’s a little bit tricky here trying to
choose a location for one of these oil pumps because obviously we’ve got
a chassis that is pretty tight for room. We also don’t want to put this in a place
where it’s overly exposed to being damaged in a crash so Brandon spent a fair bit of
time looking at our options. We basically came to the conclusion that
if we end up in a crash that’s bad enough to damage the gearbox oil pump mounted
here, we’re probably not going to be continuing anyway so gearbox oil
temperature is the least of our issues. So Brandon has also mounted a little
filter element in here. So this is quite a coarse filter element. The aim is really if we have a gearbox
failure and we get a dog tooth or something snap off, we want to prevent
that going through the pump and damaging the pump. So it’s not really there so much for fine
debris. Then we have the cooler core itself. So that’s just mounted to the side of
the radiator, so it’s going to get airflow straight from that front bumper. Looking at the side of our TTi six speed
gearbox, the gearbox is made with cooling in mind given that these are
used quite commonly here in New Zealand in endurance racing. So the centre CNC machined alloy plate
there has a fitting for both the oil drain as well as the oil return so those are
just hooked up to our pump there. At the rear of the car this is the Cusco
diff cover that we talked about a while back. And we’ve just fitted, or Brandon has just
fitted two -6 AN fittings there and run the plumbing to the rear of the car. And again, we’re trying to choose a
location where this little cooler core is not going to be exposed to unnecessary
damage and again, while it’s a little bit hard to see, this is the main chassis rail
here. So that actually extends back behind the
oil cooler. So again it’s going to be a pretty serious
shunt if we’re in a situation where that oil cooler is damaged. And while you can’t see it in these photos
I’ve got here, the pump has been mounted up inside the rear of the car. So the aim with this is that both of
those pumps will be controlled with an output from our MoTeC C125 dash. If we had fitted a power distribution module,
we’d actually do it direct from the power distribution module. And this means that we can have them
turned off when the oil temperature is low. Once it gets up to maybe 90 or 100
degrees then we can switch those oil coolers on. And it we’ve got excess cooling capacity
with those then the pumps will cycle on and off. We will be going to a power distribution
module in this car for these functions in the not too distant future. That way the dash can still control the
operation of them using a CAN message sent straight out to the power distribution
module. Simplifies the wiring because we don’t
need to wire an auxiliary output from the dash up to the power distribution
module in order to switch them. But another nice feature with the power
distribution module, and I kind of quite often get asked why would we spend,
or why should you spend the money on a power distribution module, where are
the advantages? ‘Cause they are still more expensive than
relays and fuses. But the ability to datalog a lot of
information from them can be just one of their advantages. So where I’m going to with this is that we
can datalog the current draw from each of the pumps. Now what we’re going to see in particular
is that if there was a blockage, some debris ended up blocking one of
those filters, it’s going to be much harder for the pump to move the oil so we’re going
to end up seeing the current draw increase. Now likewise if there did end up with
a failure of one of the fittings, the line came off, because the pump’s now
going to be sucking air, the current draw will go down. So by datalogging that, looking at
peak values, and we’re going to be also sending this information via
telemetry, someone who knows what they’re looking at can look at this data
and diagnose that there’s been a failure or a problem before it actually causes
any significant issues to the car. Right so hopefully we’ll have all of that
gear set up pretty shortly and we’re going to be heading back to the track in the not
too distant future to check it out and make sure that that all works exactly
how we’d expect. Now at the same time, again for those
who have been following us, I talked briefly just then about the TTi
six speed sequential gearbox. One of the reasons we were at the
track was to test the effectiveness of that gearbox, make sure that everything
was working. We are using a Motorsport Systems strain
gauge gear knob and that gives input to the ECU so we can perform clutchless
upshifts and downshifts. So I just want to show you a little bit of
data on what this actually looks like here. So again if I jump across to my laptop
screen, we’re looking at the transmission page here and I’ve just set up, I actually
don’t have all the data which would have been nice to show you here. We’re still in the process of setting
everything up. But I’ve just set up a shift page here,
worksheet to go through what we need to look at. We’ve got our RPM at the top here. We’ve got the gear, that’s the next channel
below and this is the one that we’re sort of interested in here which is our gear
lever force. So this is the output from the strain
gauge gear lever that’s converted into newtons of force. So we can see for example, the little
spike here, this is the driver pulling back on the gear lever for an upshift. So the driver can stay at wide open
throttle, in particular here, if I just zoom in a little bit. So you can see that this area here
highlighted, in the bottom we’ve got our throttle position. This was a full throttle shift from third
into fourth gear. So the ECU takes that signal in, forms a
ignition cut which allows the dogs to disengage and then the next gear can
be selected. Now the interesting thing, or what I
wanted to show you though is the downshift. So here we’ve got a section where we are
downshifting. So you can see that that voltage,
or the newton force into the strain gauge goes the opposite way as you’d
expect. So the ECU in this case is going from
fourth down to third gear. And we can see that we’ve got our
two traces at the bottom here. The orange trace is the driver’s throttle
pedal so we can see that the whole way through this downshift area,
the throttle pedal is completely on the floor, that’s at 0%. And when the ECU detects that downshift
request, what it does is it automatically blips the throttle at the actual engine. So that’s what you can see there,
the discrepancy between, oops not that one, the discrepancy between the driver’s foot
pedal position and these two blips that are being performed on the downshift. So what that does, the idea there is to
match the revs for the next lowest gear. And if you get everything right it is a
really smooth seamless shift. Now the MoTeC ECU also makes this a
little bit easier because it knows what the RPM will be for the next gear,
it knows what the gear ratios are, so it’s pretty easy to calculate for a
given engine RPM, if we downshift into a lower gear ratio,
what the RPM for the engine should be. So what it can do is that is instigates a
downshift engine RPM limit. So if you’re a little bit over enthusiastic
with the blip, it will actually hit that limit. It’s not something we want to be doing
because when it hits that limit it will bring in a RPM limit cut. So you actually end up with quite a
sharp crack sound which is a little bit offputting on the downshift. So that’s just part and parcel of tuning that
closed loop gearshift control. Now while we were playing around at
the track, we actually narrowly escaped a pretty serious problem. So again we’ll jump over to my laptop
screen. Brandon noticed this as soon as we got
the car back up on the lift once we came back from the track. And as you can see the rear CV here,
the cap screws that hold the CV, the two piece CV together have all backed
out. Now I’ve actually put these together myself
so I know full well that these were tight. And this seems to be a potential issue
with a few cars that run at our local track, Highlands Motorsport Park. Another team that we deal with had
exactly the same thing happen with their Volkswagen Golf TCR race car. And while we’re only kind of guessing
here, it seems like it could be down to where the cars with a reasonable amount
of power go over the bridge overpass at Highlands Motorsport Park, they will
actually get light, they basically can end up off the ground if you’re going
just the right speed. And this can allow obviously the rear
wheels to unload so you end up touching the rev limiter and they
grab back down. Anyway we know they were tight
so we’re not really going to trust that Loctite’s going to fix that so the solution
here, which is what Brandon’s been working on this morning, is a new set
of bolts here and this time they have been lock wired or safety wired. So this means there is absolutely no
chance of those cap screws working loose. So this is the fun I guess when it comes to
modifying cars is you fix one problem and you find another so your job is really
never done and there’s always little areas that you find that do need work
and do need some improvement. Now speaking of improvement, I also
wanted to just mention why I’ve got this suspension setup on the table in
front of me at the moment. And we’ll just jump again across to my
laptop screen. So for those who haven’t been following
or keeping up with the play, this is our Toyota, one of our Toyota 86
development cars. And we are launching another brand which
is RaceCraft as you can probably tell by the graphics wrap on that car. So RaceCraft is going to basically be a sister
company to High Performance Academy. All of our existing High Performance
Academy VIP members are also going to get free access to all of our RaceCraft courses. And RaceCraft is working basically in the
online education around driver education as well as race car setup and maintenance. We’re really excited about this project
because we think there is just as big a lack of knowledge in this area as there
is in the tuning, engine building and wiring industry. We’ve got our first course just about
complete now which is a DIY wheel alignment course. So you’ll learn how wheel alignment
works and how to actually check and make your own wheel alignment
adjustments. And we’re just in the process of filming
a worked example which will be the case of fitting these components here into our
RaceCraft Toyota 86. So I just want to mention what we’ve got
here. So we’ve got a set of MCA Red Series
coilovers which will be going into the car. MCA in particular have got a couple of
series of coilovers. These ones are designed really more around
race car use so not suitable or not really designed for on road performance. They’re a little bit stiffer, a little bit
more spring rate in them which is better for our track use. In particular we’ve got for our front
struts here, these are a MacPherson strut with the Toyota 86, so it uses a camber
adjustable strut top to make it really easy to adjust the camber. One of the problems with the ZN6 Toyota
86 chassis is that there really is, in stock form, almost no adjustability to
get our alignment geometry where we want it. Another aspect with the coilovers from
MCA, I’ll just try and show these under the overhead camera, I’ll just drop into
that. So we’ve got the camber adjustable strut
tops but they also removed the factory eccentric or the common eccentric
style camber adjuster which are so easy to end up having move and instead
MCA used these offset washers. And the centre of these washers is offset
to allow you to get your camber wherever you want it. As you can see though, they are then bolted
to the strut body. So there’s absolutely no chance of those
moving once you’ve got your camber where you want it to be. So along the lines of trying to get a
little bit more adjustability into the chassis, we are also fitting some parts
from SPL Parts in the U.S. So in particular here we’ve got one of
their rear lower control arms. So this is adjustable, so we basically
make this lower control arm shorter or longer which influences the track
width but also the camber at the rear of the car. And these use a spherical bearing instead
of the factory rubber bush. And the reason that that’s important is
that factory rubber bushes or aftermarket urethane bushes, they will tend to flex
under the high loads we see on a race track and what this means is that
the alignment, the toe settings and the camber settings that we get when
we’re setting our car up, they’re not going to necessarily be
exactly what we end up with in the track when we’re hard under
braking or cornering really hard. So spherical bearings on the upside
will not move around. On the downside, they will transfer a
lot more noise, vibration and harshness into the chassis so not necessarily
ideal for a street car but for a no holds barred race car where performance comes
first, these are the way to go. Another problem with the spherical bearing
I will mention as well is that they do tend to wear quite quickly. At the front of the car we are also using
some more parts from SPL Parts. So this is their lower control arm. Well it’s missing a part at the moment
but hopefully you’ll be able to get the gist. So again this provides adjustability for
track width. With the other arm that is missing from
this as well, we can move the lower ball joint forward or rearward in the
chassis to affect the castor. Then we’ve got another couple of arms
here for the rear of the car. We’ve got an adjustable toe control arm
and an adjustable trailing arm or traction control arm as SPL Parts call
them. So pretty excited to get all of those
parts bolted into the car really shortly. And hopefully within the next few
weeks we’ll have all of that edited and that course will be available. So of course if you are interested,
watch this space and we will be announcing more once we have that up and running. Alright fairly long winded introduction
today however bear with me ’cause I’ve just got a couple more bits
that I want to touch on. One of those is that we have just
released our latest video today. So for those of you who are not currently
subscribed to our YouTube channel, make sure you do so, you’ll get
notified of all of our latest releases. So this is another tech tour that we
shot while we were over at Goodwood Festival of Speed. And this is a car that I’m sure a few of
you will have probably already watched or probably more specifically listened
to, there’s heaps of YouTube clips of this car competing in the European Hill
Climb Championship. It is of course Georg Plasa’s old BMW E36. Nothing particularly special about the
chassis, it’s really the engine that is the exciting part of this car. So it’s powered by a Judd 560 horsepower
V8 that revs to 11000 RPM, running through a sequential gearbox. And this thing sounds really just like a
F1 car. It is one of the most amazing sounding
hill climb cars. I love turbocharged engines but it is
hard to go past a high revving V8, or V10 for that matter. Really there isn’t too much that sounds
quite as good. So if you are interested in learning a
little bit more about what makes that car tick, head over to our YouTube
after this webinar and you can check out that full length video. Lastly we are running another one of
our giveaways. So this time we have got a set of pistons
from Diamond Pistons to give away. So I’ve got one of their examples here which
is for a LS engine. But they are providing any of their
shelf stock pistons so head across to Diamond’s website and you can check out
the full list of their shelf stock pistons. If you are currently building a project
car, maybe you’re at the point where you’re considering an engine build,
then this might be the perfect time to grab yourself a free set of pistons. Now you can get yourself into the draw
by following the link that the team can now drop into the comments there. Click through that, you can get your name
into the draw, no cost to get involved. And you’re also going to be able to get
yourself some additional entries, there’s a few little jobs that you can do
and a few little tasks that you can tick off. Each one of those additional tasks will get
you an extra entry into the draw. Now not only are you going to get the
set of Diamond Pistons, you’re also going to get our suite of engine building courses
so that you’re going to know what to do when those pistons arrive. So if you’re interested in that deal,
jump in there, get in the draw and we’ll wish you all the best of luck. Alright thanks for watching there, give me
a few moments and we’ll just get set up and started into our webinar, cheers.