F1 Engine – Explained


Hello everyone And welcome to this week’s video Today I will be explaining F1 Engines now, F1 engines are just like your normal car engines In the way they operate they are piston-cylinder engines so if you don’t quite understand engines yet I have a video on piston-cylinder engines with the typical cycle and that will be a great place to start before watching this some things in this video might be confusing if you haven’t yet watched that so Formula 1 engine what do we have got going on Well, it’s restricted to 2.4 litres and a 90-degree v8 configuration so what
that means is you’ve got two cylinder banks of four cylinders perpendicular to
each other so you’ve got four cylinders here four cylinders here and there are
90 degree angle that’s the layout of the engine so for
balance per cylinder much like many
modern-day cars um unlike many modern-day cars it revs
up to eighteen thousand rpm and that is restricted they have in the past revved higher
than that around 20,000 um so what enables a Formula one engine to rev up
to eighteen thousand rpm well it has to do with its board stroke
ratio which is very high which means the cylinders are very wide and very shallow
so the piston doesn’t have to move all that much between cycles as per
revolution so in in the typical car you may have a
square board stroke ratio or even a less than one board stroke ratio so you can
have something like this going on this is not accurate at all in there the cylinders look much more like this
and so with that your piston isn’t moving as quickly as it would be if your stroke
or be a lot greater and you’re at eighteen thousand rpm and pretty much be
impossible um flame propagation as well as the
inertia of the Pistons would would be ridiculous so oh and one more thing it is a dry use
a dry sump oil system now I haven’t gone over this yet and i probably will in a
future video but just know that what that means is it
takes that oil sump which typically is underneath you got your oil pan in your
car well you take that out and you’re
allowing yourself to lower your engine and then you put your oil tank any where
in the vehichle you want and just have lines leading to the engine so by doing that you know you you’ve
lowered your engine and also you don’t have that oil sloshing in there or
possibly getting to the side and that that hose is trying to suck in oil might
be when you’re going around a corner and three or four G’s you know it it might
just be sucking in air and air is not great to get into your oil oil system so
obviously you need a different set up a dry sump allows you to do that so you just have a separate tank and
pump in the oil directly from that ok so two big differences that i’m going
to go over with Formula 1 engines they are different from your your
everyday like what I’ve got my acura of four cylinder engine so one thing is the air intake so if you
notice when the drivers are driving they’ve got that hole right above their
head that’s the air intake for the engine so
what it does is it acts as a diffuser so that hi fast-moving air goes in a lot of
people think that it’s kinda to ram the air in and sound like a on an air RAM which it’s
not really that’s not really what it’s for what it
was it’s the reason they do this is to so they spread it out so that slows down
the air so you kind of lose that effect um the
reason you want to slow down the air is to increase the pressure of the air as
it’s going into the cylinders so by doing that you get a better volumetric
efficiency and the air distribution between the cylinders is very even if
you have this more narrow you know might just feed into one more than others so what do I mean by a better volumetric
efficiency well volumetric efficiency is a ratio of
how much air you have in that cylinder compared to if you had the same size
cylinder of air at atmospheric pressure now because you’ve got your piston and
it’s sucking in the air as it moves down it is trying to pull in the maximum
amount of air as possible the maximum it could possibly pull in
would be one atmosphere right that seems pretty obvious well it can’t
quite get there it may be it you know eighty five percent so that means 80 it’s at eighty-five percent of
atmospheric pressure that’s how much air is within that cylinder so we had
something like a turbocharger or supercharger you can increase your
volumetric efficiency above one because the pressure inside of the cylinders is
going to be greater than atmospheric pressure you may have two times the amount of air
that you could possibly have in a cylinder and atmospheric pressure so your volumetric efficiency would be
two hundred percent and that’s great all right another difference you have
with f-1 engines is the valvetrain so if you don’t understand valve trains
i’ve got a video on dual overhead cam vs overhead cam vs overhead valve those are
all three options you ever want to look at so for this
I’m just going to explain the valves themselves because this is this is a key
difference between a typical engine and Formula one engine so like in my car what I’ve got going on
is I gotta valve and it’s got springs so the camshaft pushes down on this valve
and then as the camshaft moves off the valve the spring pushes the valve closed
back again so here’s a little cylinder and it would
close it back off well in Formula 1 you’ve got pneumatic
valves so are you okay pneumatic air pressure
so what’s going on with that so instead of a spring you have sort of
a piston-cylinder device and so this piston cylinder this piston is attached
to the valve and then you’ve got the cylinder here which is full of
pressurized nitrogen nitrogen because it keeps its a pressure fairly constant
with differences in temperature you don’t want water and stuff like that
in there for corrosion so you use something like nitrogen now as as you
uh your camshaft comes and it pushes down on to this on to your valve it will press in this piston and so that
pressure once that cam comes off of the valve that pressure is going to be what
pushes the valve back to the closed position so by switching to pressurized air system
or pressurized nitrogen rather system what you do is you eliminate the weight
of that spring first of all and you can rev up to higher rpms because air is
going to be a little more consistent and you don’t have to worry about the valve
kind of floating the spring not pushing it back fast enough so it’s better
system for these kind of ridiculous RPM numbers that you get with formula 1 engines so that’s my overview here one thing I guess I did not mention was
the air intake there is a reason they put that up as high as possible
basically and that’s so that you get cool clean air if you put in near the
road you know you’re going to have warmer air and also it’s going to be
tubulent you don’t want turbulent air you’re not going to get as much you decrease that
volumetric efficiency i was talking about so the place is as high as possible get
nice laminar air to go in there nice and cool maximum amount of oxygen so that’s Formula ones and i’ll just show a quick picture of one of these intakes just if
you haven’t seen that and so here you can see three different
cars and just so just kind of how the air intake system evovlved over a couple
of years and you can just look at the different ones there but once again
right above the driver’s head for that cool clean hair so here’s another useful image this is
actually back when they used 10 cylinders but regardless you can get the ideas
from it if you see that yellow sort of Ring going around the top of the engine that’s actually where that air intake is
going to kind of attach you see those little Bowl points right
there so that you’ll have the even airflow to each of those cylinders you can
see all the openings for the intake for each of the cylinders and those little
cylinders right above them are the fuel injectors and so then obviously you can
see the exhaust manifold shiny chrome on the outside and in the bottom left the
multi-plate clutch